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September 19

German Jews are ordered to wear the Jewish Badge

September 29 -- September 30

33,771 Jews are murdered at Babi Yar near Kiev (Ukraine) by members of Einsatzgruppe C

October 1

The first transport (of prisoners of war) reaches Majdanek (Poland) extermination camp

October 15

Deportation of German and Austrian Jews to ghettos in the East begins

October 28

Germans murder thousands of Kovno (Lithuania) Jews

November 5 -- November 9

Roma deported from Germany and Austria

November 24

A ghetto is established in Theresienstadt, near Prague (former Czechoslovakia)

November 30

30,000 Riga (Latvia) Jews are arrested and subsequently shot in the Rumbula Forest

December 7

The Japanese surprise attack the American Naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, then a US territory

December 7

The German army issues “Night and Fog” order

December 8

The United States enters World War II

December 8

Killing operations begin at Chelmno (Poland) extermination camp

December 31

The Jewish underground in Vilna issues a partisan manifesto calling for resistance